Phoenician writing

They added to this a wooden palette containing two depressions for the Phoenician writing of black and red ink. This solution was molded and dried into cakes, which were mixed with water before use.

Besides its philological importance, it has supplied considerable information of a cultural and historical nature and has clarified biblical terms and formulas. Bronze daggers were found in tombs from this period, even though Crete was not known to have developed any local sources of copper at that time.

They expanded upon one of the alternatives mentioned in passing by Renfrew: That is one reason why you will see different spellings for the same word or name. Three are worthy of particular attention: The refined combination worked very well. Without question, there was outside trade throughout this long development period up to and including the building of the first Minoan palaces.

There were also distinct variants of the writing system in different parts of Greece, primarily in how those Phoenician characters that did not have an exact match to Greek sounds were used.

A more critical problem was that the model could not explain why palaces did not spring up all around the Aegean, but only occurred on Crete. Archaeologist Bikai, working at Tyre, discovered habitation ceased to exist in the excavated area of that city beginning circa BC.

The literary sources do mention at least two kinds of tools for writing on stone: And since money and wealth were involved, people were highly motivated to learn the system and make sure it was being accurately written down.

This might have caused farmers to voluntarily put surpluses into warehouses in good times, and draw them out when times were difficult. Modern rediscovery[ edit ] The Phoenician alphabet was first uncovered in the 17th century, but up to the 19th century its origin was unknown.

Princeton University Press,pp. Trade brings some degree of influence, whether it be small or large. The Sefire treaty inscriptions from north Syria contain the treaty made by the king of Arpad and his overlord, the king of the Kashkeans.

The Ophel ostracon found in Jerusalem and containing a poorly preserved list of names with patronymics and residences in all likelihood belongs to the beginning of the sixth century.

The longest inscription reads: Duckworth,p. Unfortunately, no evidence was found to show olive and grape production existed to any significant extent in Crete at this early date.

Properly treated, wax has the quality of being a lightweight substance that can be easily reused. This practice has led to confusion regarding the actual history of each of these entities.

Phoenician alphabet

To look in another direction, a number of Egyptian objects and imitations of Egyptian design were found among the Minoans. While the discussion here has been focused on the West, we should acknowledge all the peoples who contributed to the rise of civilization—in the East and in the West.

The earliest stamp seals of the Persian period are those inscribed msh or mwsh. A further change in Minoan culture introduced at this time was the adoption of Egyptian-style burials and funerary customs. In phraseology and idiom it is often very close to biblical Hebrew and sheds light on the religious practices of the period.

The coins from Judah are also inscribed with the legend yhd in archaic Aramaic lapidary script. Further, it is noted that the Eastern influence arrived on Crete in the form of the Phoenicians.

Phoenician language

And while the Mycenaeans no doubt moved quickly because there were no defensive walls nor Minoan army to hinder them, Crete was a large island with many mountains and valleys. To fully appreciate the origins and impacts of the early alphabets, it is necessary to see the flow of people and discoveries back and forth across the Mediterranean in those days.

The latter competition and battles between Greeks and Phoenicians were legendary, and appeared in accounts of the Persian War, the Peloponnesian War, and the fight for control of Sicily. The end of this Minoan society left us with one more thing to consider.

American University of Beirut,pp. Their plate on the left was written in Phoenician, and the other one in Etruscan. The Phoenician alphabet was perhaps the first alphabetic script to be widely-used - the Phoenicians traded around the Mediterraean and beyond, and set up cities and colonies in parts of southern Europe and North Africa - and the origins of most alphabetic writing systems can be traced back to the Phoenician alphabet, including Greek, Etruscan.

Phoenician Alphabet, Mother of Modern Writing ; Phoenician script was the alphabet used for transliterating the Holy Bible in Hebrew.; Evolution of Phoenician into Latin/Western scripts and Arabic/Eastern scripts.

The Phoenician writing system is, by virtue of being an alphabet, simple and easy to learn, and also very adaptable to other languages, quite unlike cuneiform or hieroglyphics.

In the 9th century BCE the Aramaeans had adopted the Phoenician alphabet, added symbols for. Note: The claim that the names of Phoenician characters have easy to understand meanings in modern Hebrew only is unfounded. Meanings of Phoenician characters are easily and equally understood by speakers of Arabic, Hebrew, Aramaic and Syriac.

What is this site about? PhoeniciaOrg is the largest compilation & repository of studies on the web. It covers extensive and inclusive Canaanite Phoenician information i.e. the origin, history, geography, religion, arts, thinkers, trade, industry, mythology, language, literature, music, wars, archaeology, and culture of this people.

Language existed long before writing, emerging probably simultaneously with sapience, abstract thought and the Genus Homo.

In my opinion, the signature event that separated the emergence of palaeohumans from their anthropoid progenitors was not tool-making but a rudimentary oral communication that replaced the hoots and gestures still used by lower primates.

Phoenician writing
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Ugaritic cuneiform